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Download imageio 1.1.1 installer from -ext/downloads/download/Releases/ImageIO-Ext/1.1.x/1.1.1/windowsInstaller/windows32-imageio-ext-installer-gdal-mrsid-ecw-1.1.1.zip2b. Install it to c:\imageio2c. Remove c:\bin\geoserver\webapps\geoserver\WEB-INF\lib\imageio-ext-1.0.82d. Copy c:\imageio\lib*.* to c:\bin\geoserver\webapps\geoserver\WEB-INF\lib(imageio installer will also copy gdal dll, ecw sdk dll to your java\bin directory)
A by-product of the import process is a generated Java class whichcan encapsulate one row of the imported table. This class is usedduring the import process by Sqoop itself. The Java source code forthis class is also provided to you, for use in subsequent MapReduceprocessing of the data. This class can serialize and deserialize datato and from the SequenceFile format. It can also parse thedelimited-text form of a record. These abilities allow you to quicklydevelop MapReduce applications that use the HDFS-stored records inyour processing pipeline. You are also free to parse the delimitedsrecord data yourself, using any other tools you prefer.
The facility of using free-form query in the current version of Sqoopis limited to simple queries where there are no ambiguous projections andno OR conditions in the WHERE clause. Use of complex queries such asqueries that have sub-queries or joins leading to ambiguous projections canlead to unexpected results.
These features are more commonly known as progressive decoding and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) scalability. JPEG 2000 provides efficient code-stream organizations which are progressive by pixel accuracy and by image resolution (or by image size). This way, after a smaller part of the whole file has been received, the viewer can see a lower quality version of the final picture. The quality then improves progressively through downloading more data bits from the source.
A fully relativistic ab-initio study on free Rh clusters of 13-135 atoms is performed to identify general trends concerning their magnetism and to check whether concepts which proved to be useful in interpreting magnetism of 3d metals are applicable to magnetism of 4d systems. We found that there is no systematic relation between local magnetic moments and coordination numbers. On the other hand, the Stoner model appears well-suited both as a criterion for the onset of magnetism and as a guide for the dependence of local magnetic moments on the site-resolved density of states at the Fermi level. Large orbital magnetic moments antiparallel to spin magnetic moments were found for some sites. The intra-atomic magnetic dipole Tz term can be quite large at certain sites but as a whole it is unlikely to affect the interpretation of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments based on the sum rules.
Performing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of open systems, where the chemical potential rather than the number of both nuclei and electrons is fixed, still is a challenge. Here, drawing on bicanonical sampling ideas introduced two decades ago by Swope and Andersen [ J. Chem. Phys. 1995 , 102 , 2851 - 2863 ] to calculate chemical potentials of liquids and solids, an ab initio simulation technique is devised, which introduces a fictitious dynamics of two superimposed but otherwise independent periodic systems including full electronic structure, such that either the chemical potential or the average fractional particle number of a specific chemical species can be kept constant. As proof of concept, we demonstrate that solvation free energies can be computed from these bicanonical ab initio simulations upon directly superimposing pure bulk water and the respective aqueous solution being the two limiting systems. The method is useful in many circumstances, for instance for studying heterogeneous catalytic processes taking place on surfaces where the chemical potential of reactants rather than their number is controlled and opens a pathway toward ab initio simulations at constant electrochemical potential.
The quality of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of microstructure evolution in alloys relies on the parametrization of point-defect migration rates, which are complex functions of the local chemical composition and can be calculated accurately with ab initio methods. However, constructing reliable models that ensure the best possible transfer of physical information from ab initio to KMC is a challenging task. This work presents an innovative approach, where the transition rates are predicted by artificial neural networks trained on a database of 2000 migration barriers, obtained with density functional theory (DFT) in place of interatomic potentials. The method is tested on copper precipitation in thermally aged iron alloys, by means of a hybrid atomistic-object KMC model. For the object part of the model, the stability and mobility properties of copper-vacancy clusters are analyzed by means of independent atomistic KMC simulations, driven by the same neural networks. The cluster diffusion coefficients and mean free paths are found to increase with size, confirming the dominant role of coarsening of medium- and large-sized clusters in the precipitation kinetics. The evolution under thermal aging is in better agreement with experiments with respect to a previous interatomic-potential model, especially concerning the experiment time scales. However, the model underestimates the solubility of copper in iron due to the excessively high solution energy predicted by the chosen DFT method. Nevertheless, this work proves the capability of neural networks to transfer complex ab initio physical properties to higher-scale models, and facilitates the extension to systems with increasing chemical complexity, setting the ground for reliable microstructure evolution simulations in a wide range of alloys and applications.
We describe the results of calculations of the self-diffusion constant of liquid Ge over a range of temperatures. The calculations are carried out using an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme which combines an LDA model for the electronic structure with the Bachelet-Hamann-Schlüter norm-conserving pseudopotentials^1. The energies associated with electronic degrees of freedom are minimized using the Williams-Soler algorithm, and ionic moves are carried out using the Verlet algorithm. We use an energy cutoff of 10 Ry, which is sufficient to give results for the lattice constant and bulk modulus of crystalline Ge to within 1% and 12% of experiment. The program output includes not only the self-diffusion constant but also the structure factor, electronic density of states, and low-frequency electrical conductivity. We will compare our results with other ab initio and semi-empirical calculations, and discuss extension to impurity diffusion. ^1 We use the ab initio molecular dynamics code fhi94md, developed at 1cm the Fritz-Haber Institute, Berlin. ^2 Work supported by NASA, Grant NAG3-1437.
Multielectron processes in electrochemistry require the stabilization of reaction intermediates (RI) at the electrode surface after every elementary reaction step. Accordingly, the bond strengths of these intermediates are important for assessing the catalytic performance of an electrode material. Current understanding of microscopic processes in modern electrocatalysis research is largely driven by theory, mostly based on ab initio thermodynamics considerations, where stable reaction intermediates at the electrode surface are identified, while the actual free energy barriers (or activation barriers) are ignored. This simple approach is popular in electrochemistry in that the researcher has a simple tool at hand in successfully searching for promising electrode materials. The ab initio TD approach allows for a rough but fast screening of the parameter space with low computational cost. However, ab initio thermodynamics is also frequently employed (often, even based on a single binding energy only) to comprehend on the activity and on the mechanism of an electrochemical reaction. The basic idea is that the activation barrier of an endergonic reaction step consists of a thermodynamic part and an additional kinetically determined barrier. Assuming that the activation barrier scales with thermodynamics (so-called Brønsted-Polanyi-Evans (BEP) relation) and the kinetic part of the barrier is small, ab initio thermodynamics may provide molecular insights into the electrochemical reaction kinetics. However, for many electrocatalytic reactions, these tacit assumptions are violated so that ab initio thermodynamics will lead to contradictions with both experimental data and ab initio kinetics. In this Account, we will discuss several electrochemical key reactions, including chlorine evolution (CER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and oxygen reduction (ORR), where ab initio kinetics data are available in order to critically compare the results with those derived from a
The growth mechanism of hydrocarbons in ionizing environments, such as the interstellar medium (ISM), and some combustion conditions remains incompletely understood. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and molecular beam vacuum-UV (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry experiments were performed to understand the ion-molecule growth mechanism of small acetylene clusters (up to hexamers). A dramatic dependence of product distribution on the ionization conditions is demonstrated experimentally and understood from simulations. The products change from reactive fragmentation products in a higher temperature, higher density gas regime toward a very cold collision-free cluster regime that is dominated by products whose empirical formula is (Cmore » 2H 2) n +, just like ionized acetylene clusters. The fragmentation products result from reactive ion- molecule collisions in a comparatively higher pressure and temperature regime followed by unimolecular decomposition. The isolated ionized clusters display rich dynamics that contain bonded C 4H 4 + and C 6H 6 + structures solvated with one or more neutral acetylene molecules. Such species contain large amounts ( > 2 eV) of excess internal energy. The role of the solvent acetylene molecules is to affect the barrier crossing dynamics in the potential energy surface (PES) between (C 2H 2) n + isomers and provide evaporative cooling to dissipate the excess internal energy and stabilize products including the aromatic ring of the benzene cation. Formation of the benzene cation is demonstrated in AIMD simulations of acetylene clusters with n > 3, as well as other metastable C 6H 6 + isomers. Lastly, these results suggest a path for aromatic ring formation in cold acetylene-rich environments such as parts of the ISM.« less 2b1af7f3a8